lessons‎ > ‎

20. word formation, diminution

Latin and Greek words in Neoslavonic

  1. Latin and Greek words are written in phonetical orthography but with correct Neoslavonic suffixes in correct cases.  Latin and Greek masculine and neuter  suffixes of the nominative are used in Neoslavonic as well, but are removed in other cases in the same way as in original Latin and Greek.

    example:

    filosofija (f. N), filosofije (f. G), ... (declension pattern duša) = philosophy, (greek: φιλοσοφία)
    theatro (n. N), theatra (n. G), ... (declension pattern selo) = theater, (greek: θεάτρο)
    kapitalizmus (m. N), kapitalizma (m. G), ... (declension pattern grad) = capitalism
    arhitektura (f. N), arhitektury (f. G), ... (declension pattern žena) = architecture


  2. There is kept the original Latin or Greek gender.

    example:

    fakulta (f.) = faculty, (latin: facultas f.)
    univerzita (f.) = university, (latin: universitas f.)
    problem (n.) = problem, (greek: προβλήμα n.)


  3. Greek -ια or Latin -ia is transformed to -ija.
    filozofija, astronomija, ...

    Greek /-ις or Latin -a is transformed to -a.
    baza, ...

    Greek -κος or Latin -cus is transformed to palatalized -sky.
    filosofsky, ekonomičsky (ekonomika k->č), ...

    Latin -sio is transformed to -zija.
    televizija, ...

    Latin -ssio is transformed to -sija.
    diskusija, ...

    Latin -tio/-tia is transformed to -cija.
    gravitacija, ...

    Latin or Greek -s- between vowels is transformed to -z-.
    vaza, ...

    Latin or Greek -ss- is transformed to -s-.
    masiv, ...

    Greek -σμος or Latin -smus is transformed to -zmus.
    kapitalizmus, ...

    Greek -ο(ν) or Latin -um is transformed to -um, Greek -ον or Latin -us is transformed to -us.
    muzeum, forum, korpus, ...

    Greek adjective -στικος or Latin adjective -sticus is transformed to -stičsky.
    kapitalističsky, ...

    Greek or Latin -stus is transformed to -st.
    kapitalist, ...


words from other languages


Words from another Latin-written languages keep original orthography and are pronounced in original phonetics but follow Neoslavonic grammar in endings (gender, cases, ...)

examples:

metro, metra, ... (n.) = tube, subway, underground
laser [lɛjzr], lasera [lɛjzra], ... (m.) = laser
bypass [bajpas], bypassa [bajpasa], ... (m.) = bypass

Note, that Cyrillic and Greek tradition are different. These orthographies prefer more phonetic style. It is also possible in Neoslavonic as well.

метро, метро, ... (n.) = tube, subway, underground
лејзр [lɛjzr], лејзра [lɛjzra], ... (m.) = laser
бајпас [bajpas], бајпаса [bajpasa], ... (m.) = bypass

μετρο, μετρο, ... (n.) = tube, subway, underground
λειζρ [lɛjzr], λειζρα [lɛjzra], ... (m.) = laser
μπαιπας [bajpas], μπαιπασα [bajpasa], ... (m.) = bypass


word formation

This matter has already been discussed in the lesson 8. See this lesson again in order to repeat set of endings used for creation adjectives.

Moreover, learn these two endings:
  1. -ica making a feminine species from something.

    example:

    cěsar = an emperor → cěsarica = an empress.
    glupy (adj.) = stupid → glupica (N) = stupid (noun, f.)


  2. -ec making a masculine species from something.

    example:

    glupy (adj.) = stupid → glupec (N), glupca (G), glupče! (V) = stupid (noun, m.)


diminution

Diminution of words is very characteristic for all Slavic languages​​. By diminution we can express either smaller or younger species of something/somebody or our some kind of familiar relationship to something/somebody.

Neoslavonic supports the very basic common basis of this huge Slavic system. Please learn these only endings:
  1. -ek, -iček = masculine diminution.

    example:

    slon = an elephant
    slonek = a little/young/familiar elephant
    sloniček = a very little/young/familiar elephant

  2. -ka, -ička = feminine diminution.

    example:

    krava = a cow
    kravka = a little/young/familiar cow
    kravička = a very little/young/familiar cow

  3. -ko, ičko = neuter diminution

    example:

    děte = a child
    dětko = a little/young/familiar child
    dětičko = a very little/young/familiar child

    tele = a calf
    teletko = a little/young/familiar calf (syllable -et- is added due to declension pattern tele, telete)

    brat = a brother
    bratko = a little/young/familiar brother as neuter noun

Comments